Illegal Bath Salts, A Primer
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (“bath salts”, “Ivory Wave”, “plant fertilizer”, “plant food”,“Vanilla Sky”, “Energy-1”)
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a designer drug of the phenethylamine class. MDPV is structurally related to cathinone, an active alkaloid found in the khat plant, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). MDPV is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and it was first seized in Germany in 2007. The abuse of MDPV is increasing, particularly in Europe and Australia. MDPV has been identified in products called “bath salts” which are sold on websites based in Europe. MDPV is not approved for medical use in the United States.
MDPV (1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)- 1-pentanone; Chemical Abstract Service Number 687603- 66-3) is related in chemical structure to schedule I hallucinogenic substances (MDMA, MDEA) and to schedule I stimulants (cathinone, methcathinone). Its molecular formula is C16H21NO3 and its molecular weight is 275 g/mol. MDPV has a high melting point (estimated at 200oC) and is a solid at room temperature. MDPV is structurally related to MDMA and also to cathinone, with a ring-bearing substituent group. Cathinone derivatives, which bear ring-group substituents, have been reported to induce subjective effects similar to those induced by cocaine, amphetamine, and MDMA in humans. The subjective effects induced by ring-group substituted cathinones are feelings of empathy, stimulation, alertness, euphoria, and awareness of senses. It has been demonstrated that MDPV administered to mice increased the extracellular levels of dopamine levels 60 min after administration of MDPV. Though MDPV increased dopamine levels, the effect was not as marked as the increases induced by methamphetamine or MDMA. (March 2011 DEA/OD/ODE)
Users of MDPV anecdotally report that they take 5 mg or less per session and there have been reports of cravings for MDPV by users. The acute side effects of MDPV include tachycardia, hypertension, vasoconstriction, and sweating. The duration of the subjective effects is about 3 to 4 hours and the side effects continuing a total of 6 to 8 hours after administration. Higher doses of MDPV have caused intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users. Users have reported bouts of psychosis induced by sleep deprivation and becoming addicted after using higher doses or using at more frequent dosing intervals. MDPV loses potency when it is put into solution. MDPV has been identified in a seized product called “Ivory Wave”. It is sold as a “bath salt” with the label indicating “for novelty use only” without any instructions for dosage. “Ivory Wave” is sold in 500 mg packets on Internet sites based in Europe. MDPV has also been identified in a product called “Energy 1”, which is sold on United Kingdom- based websites. User population information in the U.S. is very limited. There have been reports of MDVP being used predominantly by the youth population. MDPV data are not reported by any national drug study programs.
Currently, MDPV is not a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).
Information in this post is taken from information provided by the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion. Orginal link here: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/mdpv.pdf
- Officials fear bath salts are growing drug problem (sfgate.com)
- You: ‘Bath salts’ latest drug to raise alarms (latimes.com)
- ‘Intense Cravings’ for a ‘Horrible Trip’ That Routinely Ends in Self-Mutilation, Suicide, and Murder (reason.com)
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